Big Apple Chapel is a New Testament based church in New York City, modeled after the pattern of the early church, with a strong emphasis on following Christ as a community of His disciples.

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    New York, NY
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Anthropology: What the Scriptures reveal about Mankind

3/91 BC


I. Questions to consider as you study

1. What's the purpose of man

a. Why did God create man

b. For what does creation serve as a basis? (dignity, allegiance, etc.)


2. What is the nature of man?

*a. What are the various components of man's nature and how are they affected by sin and regeneration

b. What does it mean to be created in the image of God?

c. From where does man get his soul?

d. What's the natural state of men (children) and how does that change?

e. What are some of the natural inclinations and characteristics of man?

*f. Define: heart, body, soul, spirit, mind, will (volition), emotions, flesh, image of God, depravity, free will, conscience

g. List and define the different types/characteristics of men:

wise, prudent, good, righteous, just, upright, holy, blameless, poor, naive, simple, fools, wicked, mockers, scoffers, evil


3. What's the destiny of man?

a. In what way did man die the day he ate the fruit?

b. In what way is a man dead as in Eph 2:1?

c. In what ways and to what extent is man "depraved"?

d. In what way are we new creatures in Christ?

e. What happens to man after his body dies?

f. Is evolution a valid option for explaining the origin of man?

g. How long does man live?

h. Define: pit, grave, sheol, gehenna, tartarus, hell, lake of fire, hades

II. DOCTRINE OF MAN (Anthropology) (IV)

A. Origin/Purpose

Man is a material and spiritual being created sinless, in the image of God, to have dominion over the earth. (Gen 1:26-28)


B. Nature: Man has a body, soul, and spirit. (I Thess 5:23)              


C. Fall/Destiny

Man rebelled against God by disobeying His commandment. The penalty was death, loss of dominion, loss of fellowship with God, and loss of the holiness with which man was created. (Gen 3)



1. Verses on Man's Purpose

ISA 43:1 But now, this is what the Lord says--he who created you, O Jacob, he who formed you, O Israel: "Fear not, for I have redeemed you; I have summoned you by name; you are mine. 7 everyone who is called by my name, whom I created for my glory, whom I formed and made." 21 the people I formed for myself that they may proclaim my praise.


ISA 49:5 And now the Lord says--he who formed me in the womb to be his servant to bring Jacob back to him and gather Israel to himself, for I am honored in the eyes of the Lord and my God has been my strength--


*REV 4:11 "You are worthy, or Lord and God, to receive glory and honor and power, for you created all things, and by your will they were created and have their being."


*EPH 2:10 For we are God's workmanship, created in Christ Jesus to do good works, which God prepared in advance for us to do.

*JOH 17:4 I have brought you glory on earth by completing the work you gave me to do.


ACT 20:24 However, I consider my life worth nothing to me, if only I may finish the race and complete the task the Lord Jesus has given me--the task of testifying to the gospel of God's grace.


*1CO 10:31 So whether you eat or drink or whatever you do, do it all for the glory of God.


Extra Credit: HEB 7:10 because when Melchizedek met Abraham, Levi was still in the body of his ancestor.


ROM 5:12 Therefore, just as sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, and in this way death came to all men, because all sinned-- 13 for before the law was given, sin was in the world. But sin is not taken into account when there is no law. 14 Nevertheless, death reigned from the time of Adam to the time of Moses, even over those who did not sin by breaking a command, as did Adam, who was a pattern of the one to come. 15 But the gift is not like the trespass. For if the many died by the trespass of the one man, how much more did God's grace and the gift that came by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, overflow to the many! 18 Consequently, just as the result of one trespass was condemnation for all men, so also the result of one act of righteousness was justification that brings life for all men. 19 For just as through the disobedience of the one man the many were made sinners, so also through the obedience of the one man the many will be made righteous.


1CO 15:22 For as in Adam all die, so in Christ all will be made alive.


2. Verses on Image of God

*GEN 1:26 Then God said, "Let us make man in our image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground." 27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them.


GEN 5:3 When Adam had lived 130 years, he had a son in his own likeness, in his own image; and he named him Seth.


GEN 9:6 "Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God has God made man.


1CO 11:7 A man ought not to cover his head,* since he is the image and glory of God; but the woman is the glory of man.


2CO 4:4 The god of this age has blinded the minds of unbelievers, so that they cannot see the light of the gospel of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God.


COL 1:15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation.


*COL 3:10 and have put on the new self, which is being renewed in knowledge in the image of its Creator.


Verses on Heart, Soul, Spirit, etc.

*1TH 5:23 May God himself, the God of peace, sanctify you through and through. May your whole spirit, soul and body be kept blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ.


*HEB 4:12 For the word of God is living and active. Sharper than any double-edged sword, it penetrates even to dividing soul and spirit, joints and marrow; it judges the thoughts and attitudes of the heart.


*MAT 22:37 Jesus replied: "'Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind.


GEN 6:5 The Lord saw how great man's wickedness on the earth had become, and that every inclination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil all the time.


DEU 4:29 But if from there you seek the Lord your God, you will find him if you look for him with all your heart and with all your soul.


*DEU 6:5 Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength.


DEU 29:4 But to this day the Lord has not given you a mind that understands or eyes that see or ears that hear.


1SA 2:35 I will raise up for myself a faithful priest, who will do according to what is in my heart and mind. I will firmly establish his house, and he will minister before my anointed one always.


1CH 28:9 "And you, my son Solomon, acknowledge the God of your father, and serve him with wholehearted devotion and with a willing mind, for the Lord searches every heart and understands every motive behind the thoughts. If you seek him, he will be found by you; but if you forsake him, he will reject you forever.


JOB 38:36 Who endowed the heart with wisdom or gave understanding to the mind?


PSA 64:6 They plot injustice and say, "We have devised a perfect plan!" Surely the mind and heart of man are cunning.


ECC 7:25 So I turned my mind to understand, to investigate and to search out wisdom and the scheme of things and to understand the stupidity of wickedness and the madness of folly.


PSA 51:17 The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit; a broken and contrite heart, O God, you will not despise.


PSA 57:1 Have mercy on me, O God, have mercy on me, for in you my soul takes refuge. I will take refuge in the shadow of your wings until the disaster has passed.


Verses on the natural state of man

PSA 51:5 Surely I was sinful at birth, sinful from the time my mother conceived me. 6 Surely you desire truth in the inner parts; you teach+ me wisdom in the inmost place.


PSA 53:2 God looks down from heaven on the sons of men to see if there are any who understand, any who seek God. 3 Everyone has turned away, they have together become corrupt; there is no one who does good, not even one.


PSA 58:3 Even from birth the wicked go astray; from the womb they are wayward and speak lies.


PSA 71:6 From birth I have relied on you; you brought me forth from my mother's womb. I will ever praise you.


3. Verses on Man's Destiny

JOB 14:1 "Man born of woman is of few days and full of trouble. 2 He springs up like a flower and withers away; like a fleeting shadow, he does not endure.


PSA 90:10 The length of our days is seventy years--or eighty, if we have the strength; yet their span is but trouble and sorrow, for they quickly pass, and we fly away. 


ISA 26:14 They are now dead, they live no more; those departed spirits do not rise. You punished them and brought them to ruin; you wiped out all memory of them. 19 But your dead will live; their bodies will rise. You who dwell in the dust, wake up and shout for joy. Your dew is like the dew of the morning; the earth will give birth to her dead.


DAN 12:2 Multitudes who sleep in the dust of the earth will awake: some to everlasting life, others to shame and everlasting contempt. 3 Those who are wise will shine like the brightness of the heavens, and those who lead many to righteousness, like the stars for ever and ever.


DAN 12:13 "As for you, go your way till the end. You will rest, and then at the end of the days you will rise to receive your allotted inheritance."

2CO 5:9 So we make it our goal to please him, whether we are at home in the body or away from it. 10 For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, that each one may receive what is due him for the things done while in the body, whether good or bad.


PHI 1:23 I am torn between the two: I desire to depart and be with Christ, which is better by far;


LUK 16:22 "The time came when the beggar died and the angels carried him to Abraham's side. The rich man also died and was buried. 43 Jesus answered him, "I tell you the truth, today you will be with me in paradise."