1Sam 30:6 And David was greatly distressed; for the people spake of stoning him, because the soul of all the people was grieved, every man for his sons and for his daughters: but David encouraged (חֲזַ֨ק cha·Zak) himself in the LORD his God.
1A Parakaleo: Greek Sources | (Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War) Corinth and Athens are not getting along. At the crux of their dispute is a Corinthinan colony, Potidea. But the siege of Potidaea put an end to her [Corinth’s] inaction . . . Immediately summoning the allies to [Sparta], she came and loudly accused Athens of breach of the treaty. . . | (Xenophon, Anabasis) let us not . . . wait for others to come to us and summon us to the noblest deeds . . .
1B Exhort: English Sources | (Foreign Affairs)The recurring educational campaigns . . . exhort party members to "live plainly, struggle hard" and warn them not to "wallow in luxuries and pleasures" | (Foderaro, The New York Times) . . . a brigade of students on campus, known as eco-reps, who cajole and exhort their peers to reduce their carbon footprints.
1C Courage/Encourage & Comfort: Oxford English Dictionary | Courage, etym: a Common Romanic word, answering to a Latin type *corāticum, < cor heart. -age suffix (abstract noun) | Courage, Obs. def: The heart as the seat of feeling, thought, etc.; spirit, mind, disposition, nature | Encourage, def: To inspire with courage, animate, inspirit. | Comfort, Obs. def: To strengthen (morally or spiritually); to encourage, hearten, inspirit, incite.
2 New Testament Study
2A Gospels & Acts | Mainly of others parakaleoing Jesus. Mt 14:36 and begged Him that they might only touch the hem of His garment. | Mk 7:32 Then they brought to Him one who was deaf and had an impediment in his speech, and they begged Him to put His hand on him | Lk 8:41 And he fell down at Jesus’ feet and begged Him to come to his house | Acts 9:38 the disciples had heard that Peter was there, they sent two men to him, imploring him not to delay in coming to them. | In Acts we begin to see more uses in which the benefit is for those being parakaleoed. Acts 14:22 strengthening the souls of the disciples, exhorting them to continue in the faith, and saying, “We must through many tribulations enter the kingdom of God.” NB: this ehxhortation reminds of the prequisite suffering for entry into God’s kingdom.
2B Epistles Authors encourage specific behavior. They tailor exhortation to others’ needs. Exhortation serves a purpose in the Biblical life.
2Bi Behavior | The kind of behavior that is parakaleoed for is holy living. |1Pet 2:11 Beloved, I beg you as sojourners and pilgrims, abstain from fleshly lusts which war against the soul | 1Thess 4:1 Finally then, brethren, we urge and exhort in the Lord Jesus that you should abound more and more, just as you received from us how you ought to walk and to please God | 1Tim 2:1 Therefore I exhort first of all that supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks be made for all men | 1 Tim 6:2 but rather do them service, because they are faithful and beloved, partakers of the benefit. These things teach and exhort. | Eph 4:1 I, therefore, the prisoner of the Lord, beseech you to walk worthy of the calling with which you were called.
The kind of behavior that is exhorted is to abstain from lusts, to abound, to walk worthily, to please God, to pray, and to serve. These were the things that Jesus did and that Paul & Co. did. We should come alongside them and continue in the faith.
2Bii Context | 1Thess 3:2 and sent Timothy, our brother and minister of God, and our fellow laborer in the gospel of Christ, to establish you and encourage you concerning your faith | Jude 1:3 Beloved, while I was very diligent to write to you concerning our common salvation, I found it necessary to write to you exhorting you to contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints.
2Biii Function Those who swim upstream need to band together. Mutual encouragement is an effective force against this world’s current.
a) Body-life | Phil 4:2 I implore Euodia and I implore Syntyche to be of the same mind in the Lord.| Col 2:2 that their hearts may be encouraged, being knit together in love, and attaining to all riches of the full assurance of understanding, to the knowledge of the mystery of God, both of the Father and of Christ | Heb 3:13 but exhort one another daily, while it is called “Today,” lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin. NB: Exhortation can prevent being hardened through the deceitfulnes of sin.
b) Vs Rebuke | 1Tim 5:1 Do not rebuke an older man, but exhort him as a father, younger men as brothers | 2Tim 4:2 Preach the word! Be ready in season and out of season. Convince, rebuke, exhort, with all longsuffering and teaching.| Titus 2:15 Speak these things, exhort, and rebuke with all authority. Let no one despise you. Rebuke is bring to light where something misses the mark. Parakaleoing is more trying to persuade others to live Biblically.
2Biv Various Nuances | exhort what is true (1Pt 5:1), from sound docrtine (Tit 1:9), by the mercies of God (Rm 12:1), through the Lord and the love of the Spirit (Rom15:30)
3 Josh 1:3-9 (see also 1 Chr 28:9)
3“Every place that the sole of your foot will tread upon I have given you, as I said to Moses. 5“No man shall be able to stand before you all the days of your life; as I was with Moses, so I will be with you. I will not leave you nor forsake you. 6“Be strong and of good courage, for to this people you shall divide as an inheritance the land which I swore to their fathers to give them. 7“Only be strong and very courageous, cha·Zak = strong (to fasten upon), e·Matz = very courageous (alert, phys./ment.) that you may observe to do according to all the law which Moses My servant commanded you; do not turn from it to the right hand or to the left, that you may prosper wherever you go. 8“This Book of the Law shall not depart from your mouth, but you shall meditate in it day and night, that you may observe to do according to all that is written in it. For then you will make your way prosperous, and then you will have good success. 9“Have I not commanded you? Be strong and of good courage; do not be afraid, nor be dismayed, for the LORD your God is with you wherever you go.”
1 What is result of parakleoing? What is the result of not parakaleoing?
2 When do you encourage? What is going on when Paul & Co. do? What are the things that he’s trying to address?
3 Could Satan & Co. parakaleo you? How would you know?
4 Who needs to be encouraged? Who doesn’t need to be encouraged, and what do they need instead?
5 What is difficult about exhorting others?
6 What is the basis of being encouraged, of being strong hearted and steadfast?